The Union ironclad Monitor, under the command of Lieutenant John Worden, arrived the same night. She fought the CSS Virginia at the momentous Battle of Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862. Virginia fought to a draw off Hampton Roads, Virginia. The Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia tried to break the Union navy blockade of Hampton Roads. It will be remembered that the Virginia was a novelty in naval architecture, wholly unlike any ship that ever floated; that her heaviest guns were equal novelties in ordnance; that her motive power and obedience to her helm were untried, and her officers and crew strangers, comparatively, to the ship and to each other; and yet, under all these disadvantages, the dashing courage and consummate professional ability of Flag Officer Buchanan and his associates achieved the most remarkable victory which naval annals record.". As a result, the battle is sometimes called the Battle of the Ironclads or the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack. With the tide gone out and the Minnesota once more out of reach, Lieutenant Jones decided to take the Virginia back home for repairs and to resupply. Virginia Beach, VA – More than 30 Hampton Roads breweries and cider makers will be participating in the 8th Annual 757 Battle of the Beers Continue Reading 7th Annual 757 Battle of the Beers Winners The United States Navy and navies in Europe abandoned the building of wooden ships and began building ironclads, ushering in a new era of iron warships. First major battle of war. Hampton National Cemetery. The USS Monitor was one of the first ironclads built for the Union Navy. Updates? It took place from April 6 to April 7, 1862 in southwestern Tennessee. The second day, the Virginia was forced to retreat. The stalemate was finally broken when Commander Worden of the Monitor was blinded by a shot directly striking his viewing slot in the pilot house. The Confederates began to ferry prisoners and wounded off of the Congress, but Union shore batteries began firing on the Virginia. The ship sheered into shallow water, and the Virginia, concluding that the enemy was disabled, turned again to attack the Minnesota. The battle was important for a different reason, though. As a result, the battle is sometimes called the Battle of the Ironclads or the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack. After additional action and reloading, the Monitor’s pilothouse was hit, driving iron splinters into Worden’s eyes. The vessel was shaken in every fiber," was engineer Ramsay's description of that moment. On March 9, 1862, one of the most famous naval battles in American history occurred as two ironclads, the U.S.S.Monitor and the C.S.S. The subsequent battle between the two ironclads was generally interpreted as a victory for the Monitor, however, and produced feelings of combined relief and exultation in the North. The Virginia, on the other hand, tried unsuccessfully to lure the Monitor into another battle in Hampton Roads harbour. For two hours the cannonade continued without perceptible damage to either of the combatants.". Virginia. Delirium seized the crew. The Northern-built Merrimack, a conventional steam frigate, had been salvaged by the Confederates from the Norfolk navy yard and rechristened the Virginia. Check out my new book of American Civil War Stories! These new ships showed the change to steam powered ships used in battle. Union General George B. McClellan’s steady advance up the James Peninsula threatened the Confederate capital of Richmond, and … Saturday, March 8, 1862 was laundry day for the crews of the Union’s North Atlantic Blockading Squadron in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Commander Wordon (on the Monitor) described his tactics thus: "I had decided how I would fight her in advance. First of all, Lincoln was read… Though the battle between Monitor and the Merrimac had little effect on the outcome of the war, the power and hardiness they displayed at Hampton Roads changed the way ships were built. Ordered to Hampton Roads, Va., the USS Monitor arrived on the evening of March 8, 1862. The USS Monitor contained more than 40 new inventions when it was launched. The sanded deck was red and slippery with blood. "Here, in the dread tribunal of last resort, valor contended against valor. At this point, Buchanan was wounded in the groin, and the Virginia retired for the day. On May 9, 1862, following the Confederate evacuation of Norfolk, the Virginia was destroyed by its crew. To counter this blockade, the Confederate Navy at Norfolk began converting the old USS Merrimack into an ironclad, the CSS Virginia. This 172-foot “Yankee Cheese Box on a raft,” with its water-level decks and armoured revolving gun turret, represented an entirely new concept of naval design. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Union had a strategic victory, they prevented further damage to their remaining fleet and Duel of Iron details the battle of Hampton Roads fought on March 8 th and 9 th, 1862. Lt. John Worden commandeered the USS Monitor to deflect any offensive the Merrimack, now renamed CSS Virginia, directed toward them. The Battle of Shiloh was one of the major early engagements of the American Civil War (1861-65). "Resolved . Manning them were about 9,000 officers and men, which were trained in the art of defending a harbor or ship-to-ship fights at sea, but not for the war that was just weeks away. The scene that greeted her crew that evening was horrifying. . This first meeting of two ironclad warships in battle forever changed naval architecture, battle tactics, and the very psychology of the men who served within them. Saturday, March 8, 1862 was laundry day for the crews of the Union’s North Atlantic Blockading Squadron in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Her crew never had a chance to take her for a test run to get used to the new ship, because they had to set off immediately to defend the blockade at Hampton Roads. Next, the Virginia turned her attention to the USS Congress. The blockade prevented all commerce with Norfolk and Richmond, … Despite Hampton’s move to the Big South Conference, the Pirates and Spartans met in the “Battle of the Bay” rivalry game for the 24th straight … Water battle with first two iron ships (ironclads) fighting each other. Here brave men struggled and died for the right as God gave them to see the right. Jones intended to try to sink her as well, but then the Monitor came forward to defend her. Most historians call it the Battle of Hampton Roads because it took place in a body of water called Hampton Roads in Virginia. The Cumberland began to sink immediately, but her crew continued to fight valiantly (right) for at least forty minutes: "On the doomed ship Cumberland the battle raged with equal fury. The scene that greeted her crew that evening was horrifying. In retaliation, Admiral Buchanan gave this order, "Plug hot shot into her and don't leave her until she's afire. This effectively left the Confederate capital at Richmond and the main Confederate Navy yard at Norfolk without ocean access. Despite Hampton’s move to the Big South Conference, the Pirates and Spartans met in the “Battle of the Bay” rivalry game for the 24th straight … However, the Admiral intended to inflict some real damage, and set about doing so immediately. Hampton Roads General (South) C.S.S. The Union side wanted the encounter to take place in the open sea. The after pivot-gun broke loose and rushed down the decline like a furious animal, rolling over a man as it bounded overboard, leaving a mass of mangled flesh on deck.". Inside Business and Cherry Bekaert LLP are excited to announce the winners of this year’s Roaring 20 awards program, honoring 20 of Hampton Roads' most dynamic businesses! They were not successful. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The ship listed. Union General George B. McClellan’s steady advance up the James Peninsula threatened the Confederate capital of Richmond, and … I would keep the Monitor moving in a circle just large enough to give time for loading the guns. Under the command of Admiral Franklin Buchanan, she arrived the next day, March 8, and began to attack the Union blockade... As the Virginia made her way into the Roads, she made quite an impression according to her chief engineer H. Ashton Ramsay: "As we rounded into view the white-winged sailing craft that sprinkled the bay and long lines of tugs and small boats scurried to the far shore like chickens on the approach of a hovering hawk." The account of the Battle of Hampton Roads described in the reports favoring prize money left no room for doubt as to the differences between Federal and Confederate forces and who was right and who was wrong. The Battle of Hampton Roads March 8-9, 1862. The two ironclads faced off once more, on April 11, 1862, but did not engage, neither being willing to fight on the other’s terms. Congress, and caused the U.S.S. An extensive collection of Abraham Lincoln pictures. ", About Me - Contact Me - Privacy Policy - Disclaimer, Copyright ©2012-2016 AmericanCivilWarStory.com. Engineer Ramsay described the scene like this: "...a black object that looked like the historic description, "...a barrel-head afloat with a cheese-box on top of it," moved slowly out from under the Minnesota and boldly confronted us. -Official resolution of US Congress, thanking Commander Worden and the crew of the USS Monitor for defeating the CSS Virginia (Merrimack). I believe you're referring to the legendary Battle of Hampton Roads, between the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia. It must be confessed that both ships were queer-looking craft, as grotesque to the eyes of the men of '62 as they would appear to those of the present generation.". The Monitor could fire only once in seven or eight minutes but was faster and more maneuverable than her larger opponent. That the thanks of Congress and the American people are due and are hereby tendered to Lieutenant J. L. Worden, of the United States Navy, and to the officers and men of the ironclad gunboat Monitor, under his command, for the skill and gallantry exhibited by them in the remarkable battle between the Monitor and the rebel ironclad steamer Merrimack.". The fleet consisted of 90 warships; of these, 48 ships were out of commission, and the rest, or in reality the ones able to make steam or sail, were showing the flag in foreign seas. Library of Congress. Battle of Hampton Roads. This effectively left the Confederate capital at Richmond and the main Confederate Navy yard at Norfolk without ocean access. The winner of the middle school division was Hampton Roads Academy and Warwick River Christian School came in second. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-the-Monitor-and-Merrimack, United States History - Battle Between the Monitor and the Merrimac, Social Studies for Kids - The Monitor and the Merrimack, The Civil War - Battle of the Monitor and Merrimac. Soon after 8:00 am the Virginia opened fire on the Minnesota, and the Monitor appeared. Corrections? Library of Congress. This quote illustrates the old Civil War "brother against brother" cliche, since Buchanan knew his brother was serving as paymaster aboard the Congress at the time. Though the battle between Monitor and the Merrimac had little effect on the outcome of the war, the power and hardiness they displayed at Hampton Roads changed the way ships were built. Duel of Iron details the battle of Hampton Roads fought on March 8 th and 9 th, 1862. With her upper hull cut away and armoured with iron, this 263-foot (80.2-metre) masterpiece of improvisation resembled, according to one contemporary source, “a floating barn roof.” Commanded by Commodore Franklin Buchanan and supported by several other Confederate vessels, the Virginia virtually decimated a Union fleet of wooden warships off Newport News, Virginia, on March 8, destroying the sloop Cumberland and the 50-gun frigate Congress while the frigate Minnesota ran aground. He would later go on to become Commandant of the Marine Corps. The Monitor made directly for the Virginia in an effort to put some distance between the coming battle and the vulnerable Minnesota. On March 9, 1862, one of the most famous naval battles in American history occurred as two ironclads, the U.S.S.Monitor and the C.S.S. The Battle of Hampton Roads Hampton Roads was a peaceful waterway cross-roads prior to the start of the Civil War. Fact #2: The Confederacy had great difficulty in sourcing the iron plating needed for the Virginia. Hampton Roads Significance. The status of the United States Navy in January 1861 was woeful. The Battle of Hampton Roads was indecisive; neither side was victorious. The cemetery’s first burials took place in 1862 and the cemetery is among numerous national cemeteries with origins that date to … Both ships hammered away at each other with heavy cannon, and tried to run down and hopefully disable the other, but … Check out our new line of Civil War Themed T-Shirts! Seven Days’ Battles (June 25–July 1, 1862), series of American Civil War battles in which a Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee drove back General George B. McClellan’s Union forces and thwarted the Northern attempt to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. Engineer Ramsay (on the Virginia) described the battle as follows: "And now the great fight was on, a fight the like of which the world had never seen... We hovered about each other in spirals, gradually contracting the circuits until we were within point-blank range, but our shell glanced from the Monitor's turret just as hers did from our sloping sides. Wh… The Battle of Hampton Roads was fought March 8-9, 1862, and was part of the American Civil War (1861-1865). Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water that serves as a wide channel for the James, Nansemond and Elizabeth rivers between Old Point Comfort and Sewell's Point where the Chesapeake Bay flows into the Atlantic Ocean, and the surrounding metropolitan region located in the Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina portions of the Tidewater region. The prediction that a “single ironclad, in the midst of a hostile wooden fleet, would resemble a … Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack, also called Battle of Hampton Roads, (March 9, 1862), in the American Civil War, naval engagement at Hampton Roads, Virginia, a harbour at the mouth of the James River, notable as history’s first duel between ironclad warships and the beginning of a new era of naval warfare. Omissions? The Virginia was completed on March 7, 1862, at Norfolk naval yard and set sail immediately for Hampton Roads. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The American Battlefield Trust's Battle of Hampton Roads page includes battle maps, history articles, historical facts, recommended books, web links, and more on this 1862 battle of Civil War ironclads in Virginia. Here's what to drink. Here's the long and short of it: The South had recently taken over a valuable Union shipyard. In … The battle was a draw - but it showed that battleships would have to be metal from now on. The account of the Battle of Hampton Roads described in the reports favoring prize money left no room for doubt as to the differences between Federal and Confederate forces and who was right and who was wrong. The Virginia’s spectacular success on March 8 had not only marked an end to the day of wooden navies but had also thrilled the South and raised the false hope that the Union blockade might be broken. Shortly after Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, the Union Navy placed a blockade on Hampton Roads (the area where the James River flows into the Atlantic Ocean). The ten original essays, written by leading historians, explore every aspect of the battle—from the building of the warships and life aboard these “iron coffins” to tactics, strategy, and the debates about who really won the battle of Hampton Roads. However, the battle was fought between two famous ironclad ships called the Monitor and the Merrimack. While the battle was indecisive, it is difficult to exaggerate the profound effect on morale that was produced in both regions. When Greene finally got things under control and had his ship headed back for more, the Confederate ship was already heading home. The engines labored. This first meeting of two ironclad warships in battle forever changed naval architecture, battle tactics, and the very psychology of the men who served within them. The importance of the area, where the James, Nansemond and Elizabeth Rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, was instantly realized by both warring parties. Ironclads battle at Hampton Roads, Virginia . The USS Monitor only rose 18 inches above the water. The Battle of Hampton Roads was fought March 8-9, 1862, and was part of the American Civil War (1861-1865). Battle of the Books is the result of collaboration between the Newport News Public Library System and the Williamsburg Regional Library, as well as other library systems in the Hampton Roads area. Lincoln was ready to win, and in 1862, all four parts were implemented. At the point where the circle impinged upon the Merrimac our guns should be fired, and loaded while we were moving around the circuit. Most historians call it the Battle of Hampton Roads because it took place in a body of water called Hampton Roads in Virginia. After exchanging cannon fire for a time, the Congress surrendered. Two iron clads battled in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Minnesota to run aground. As she tried to escape, the Congress ran aground, but she did not immediately surrender. This made it appear to those aboard the Monitor that the Virginia had quit, and that they had won the battle. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Monitor—with 16 crewmen—was lost during a gale off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, on December 31, 1862. Both crews lacked training; firing was ineffective. She was under the command of Lieutenant John L. Worden. This book takes a new look at this historic battle. Since the CSS Virginia already totally disabled the USS Cumberla… The victory claims that were made by each side in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Hampton Roads, based as both were on misinterpretations of the opponent's behavior, have been dismissed by present-day historians. They were racing to beat the Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia to the Roads. The Battle of Hampton Roads was short and contrary to its name, not on any road at all. Draw. On March 8, 1862 the CSS Virginia was commandeered by Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan to take on the USS Cumberland off the coast of Newport News, Virginia. Although neither ironclad was the winner, but both sides won in different ways. When the Union Navy learned of this project (by way of some spies) they began work on their own ironclad as quickly as possible. To counter this blockade, the Confederate Navy at Norfolk began converting the old USS Merrimack into an ironclad, the CSS Virginia. This Marine participated and saw combat in multiple naval operations during the war including the Battle of the Hatteras Inlet Batteries, Battle of Hampton Roads, Battle of Mobile Bay. At about 12:30 pm the Virginia headed for its navy yard; the battle was over. View the winners … The reason was the comparative one: The Virginia/Merrimac had attacked the Union fleet on March 8, 1862 at Hampton Roads, and sunk the U.S.S. Then the order came, "All save who can." Shiloh Winner. Undeterred, Virginia steamed out into Hampton Roads. Check out my book for even more amazing Civil War Stories! Meanwhile, aboard the Virginia they believed that the Monitor was quitting, and that they had won the battle. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. -Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephan Mallory, to President Jefferson Davis. During the American Civil War, Hampton Roads was the scene of the battle (March 9, 1862) between the ironclads Monitor and Virginia . Hampton Roads General (North) U.S.S. Effects Battle of Hampton Roads The first battle to rule wooden boats obsolete, new era for naval warfare. However, the battle was fought between two famous ironclad ships called the Monitor and the Merrimack. But her officers reported low ammunition, a leak in the bow, and difficulty in keeping up steam. Ordered to Hampton Roads, Va., the USS Monitor arrived on the evening of March 8, 1862. 757 Battle of the Beers has become the premier festival for local beer in Hampton Roads. The Battle of Hampton Roads was a naval battle of the American Civil War.It was fought on March 8 and 9, 1862 near Hampton Roads, Virginia.It was an important battle because it was the first combat between ironclad warships.. Monitor. Hampton National Cemetery is located in Hampton, Va., near Hampton Roads, in the vicinity of where the historic Civil War naval battle between the Confederate Merrimac/Virginia and the Union Monitor iron-clad ships occurred in 1862. The USS Monitor was commissioned in New York Harbor on February 25, 1862. Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack, naval engagement during the American Civil War on March 9, 1862, at Hampton Roads, Virginia, a harbor at the mouth of the James River, notable as history’s first duel between ironclad warships and the beginning of a new era of naval warfare. Ironclads battle at Hampton Roads, Virginia . Following the embarrassing rout in the first Battle of Bull Run (also called Manassas), the Union devised a long-term strategy, dubbed the Anaconda Plan, to attack the Confederacy from all sides. Monitor positioned herself to protect the immobile Minnesota, and a general battle began. Our new line of American civil war themed t-shirts. While she rested at anchor that evening, the USS Monitor slipped into harbor unnoticed and anchored beside the grounded USS Minnesota. Evidently the Merrimac would return the compliment every time.". Hampton Roads Winner. Years of bureaucratic ineptitude and red tape left the Navy in poor condition. The wreck of the Monitor was located in 1973, and in 2002 marine salvagers raised the ship’s gun turret and other artifacts from the wreckage. The United States Navy and navies in Europe abandoned the building of wooden ships and began building ironclads, ushering in a new era of iron warships. They must look after their own wounded, since they won't let us." One of the most famous naval battles of the conflict, the engagement is noteworthy as it marked the first time two armored, ironclad warships met in combat. The South was trying to break through the Union blockade. The temporary withdrawal of the Monitor and subsequent exit of the Merrimac led both ships to believe that their opponents had fled and that they had won the battle. Therefore, both sides believed they had carried the day and celebrated accordingly: "The report will be read with deep interest, and its details will not fail to rouse the ardor and nerve the arms of our gallant seamen. His brother was un-wounded and swam safely to shore, but this story serves as just one stark reminder, among many, of how truly terrible this war was. Cumberland and the U.S.S. It was a battle fought on water by ironclad ships of war. Battle of Hampton Roads. They agree that the result of the Monitor–Merrimack encounter was victory for neither. The Battle of Hampton Roads, also referred to as the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads, was a naval battle during the American Civil War. The next morning, the Virginia, now under the command of Buchanan's replacement Lieutenant Catesby ap Roger Jones, headed towards the Minnesota. The Battle of Hampton Roads weekend will include family-friendly activities, lectures, tours, hands-on activities, canon firings and re-enactors 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday-Sunday. The prediction that a “single ironclad, in the midst of a hostile wooden fleet, would resemble a … It was a terrible year in American history, and the following battles are just a few of the major events of the American Civil War in 1862. CHESAPEAKE, Va. (WAVY) — The winners of the Chesapeake Regional Health Foundation’s 13th-annual Bra-ha-ha event were announced Friday night. . credit: @NFB22 As the combat between ironclads was the primary significance of the battle, the general verdict is that the overall result was a draw.All would acknowledge that the Southern fleet inflicted far more dama… As it were… Thus, the stage was set for the dramatic naval battle of March 9, with crowds of Union and Confederate supporters watching from the decks of nearby vessels and the shores on either side. After asking for the surrender of the USS Cumberland, and being denied, he headed the Virginia straight at her, and rammed her... "There was an ominous pause, then a crash, shaking us all off our feet. Virginia fought to a draw off Hampton Roads, Virginia. When this happened, the Monitor immediately sheared away from the battle as the crew moved the injured Commander away from the pilot house. Shortly after Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, the Union Navy placed a blockade on Hampton Roads (the area where the James River flows into the Atlantic Ocean). CHESAPEAKE, Va. (WAVY) — The winners of the Chesapeake Regional Health Foundation’s 13th-annual Bra-ha-ha event were announced Friday night. The battle was inconclusive, but Union forces later took control of Hampton Roads, Norfolk, and the lower James River, though they were thwarted from venturing further upstream by a strong Confederate battery at Drewry's Bluff. They stripped to their trousers, kicked off their shoes, tied handkerchiefs about their heads, and fought and cheered as their ship sank beneath their feet. They passed back and forth on opposite courses. In the first battle of ironclad warships, the Confederate Virginia (the rechristened frigate Merrimack, said to resemble “a floating barn roof”) clashed with the smaller Union Monitor. 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