Alex Diener, a Geographer at the University of Kansas, suggests that there were two primary reasons for these shifts: first, the invitations for diasporic communities to return led to greater return than anticipated by the Kazakhstan government leading them to impose more restrictive quotas to limit in-migration, and second, the in-migration of oralmandar declined as migrants realized the economic situation of Kazakhstan. Barcus, Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Grant, Contemporary Mongolia Program; awarded through the University of Pittsburgh; 2004, “Population, Environment, and Geo-Spatial Technologies in Mongolia”, Werner, Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Grant, Contemporary Mongolia Program; awarded through the University of Pittsburgh; 2004 “Women’s Experiences in Mongolia”. Why do some Mongolian Kazakhs stay in Mongolia? Negotiating Everyday Islam after Socialism: A Study of the Kazakhs of Bayan-Ulgii, Mongolia.  Minnesota State University, Geography Department Colloquium. and Cynthia Werner. During socialism and even more rapidly since 1989, there has been a gradual transformation of gender roles and gender relations. Most live in Bayan-Olgii Aimag, where they make up 90% of the inhabitants. Kazakh culture is distinct here: the nomads are Muslim and they speak Kazakh in everyday life, using Mongolian only when they need to communicate with other tribes or groups. Werner, Cynthia and Holly Barcus. 2012. “Kazakhstan is my homeland; Mongolia is my fatherland”: Considering the role of place identity and other cultural factors in shaping mobility and immobility decisions in a transnational community” Central Eurasian Studies Society Meeting. Approximately 94 percent of the population of Mongolia are ethnic Mongols, mainly from the Khalkha clan. Eds. Barcus, Holly. Politically, the Mongolian and Kazakh steppes were controlled by nomadic tribesmen until the late 17th century when they came under the influence of Chinese and Russian empires respectively. Conversations About Our Scholarly Lives (CASL) sponsored by the Center for Scholarship and Teaching, 3 May 2010. When the former USSR dissolved, and Kazakhstan declared independence, PRESIDENT Nazarbayev welcomed back the diasporic Kazakh community, including Kazakhs from Mongolia. What benefits does the government of Kazakhstan provide? At the end of the 20th century there were roughly 7,600,000 in Kazakhstan and about 1,200,000 in China (mainly in Sinkiang), with small numbers in Uzbekistan, Russia, and Mongolia. Barcus, Holly. Nagoya, Japan August 2013. But Kazakh does not have the difficulties that inflecting languages have with grammatical gender and multiple systems of declension and conjugation. What benefits does the government of Kazakhstan provide?  In 1991 Kazakhstan passed the Resolution “On the Procedures and Conditions of the Relocation to Kazakh SSR for Persons of Kazakh Ethnicity from Other Republics and Abroad Willing to Work in Rural Areas.” In 1992, the quota system for Kazakhs repatriating to Kazakhstan was created through the 1992 Law on Immigration. She received her M.A.  Numbering over 100,000 in the 2000 Census, they comprise the largest ethnic minority in Mongolia, although only 4% of the total population. Families, U.S. DOI: 10.1080/09668136.2017.1401042. Kazakh nomads have grazed their livestock near the Altai Mountains for hundreds of years. Kazakh ethnic group in Mongolia. Central Asian Survey 32(4):527-541. She graduated from the Nanhua University of Taiwan in 2010, with a Master of Arts degree in International Relations – Asia Pacific Studies 2010. Teaching about the Geography and Cultures of Asia is the Middle Grades, a development workshop for teachers, sponsored by the Minnesota Humanities Center. Early Transition Years (1991-1996) Since 2006, we have been assessing the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs. Transnational Migration, Local Economic Change and the Persistence and Adaptation of Rural Livelihoods: A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia. Mid-Transition Years (1997-2002) "Qazaqstan" TV channel and Kanat Beisekeyev present the first episode of “The Nomads" documentary series about the life and traditions of Kazakh immigrants. Students, Connect with Immigration to Kazakhstan for oralmandar continued to evolve during the middle transition years (1997-2002) with a new legal framework and changing annual quotas. Admissions, Early 2009 Stipendiary Fellow, Glasscock Center for Humanities Research, Texas A&M, 2008-09; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs” (Anthropology Department fellow). 2008. She worked as a research assistant with this project from May 2006 to July 2010. During the summers of 2006, 2008, and 2009 we conducted interviews in Ulgii and in several rural locations across the province. During this period, the quota declined from 3,000 families during the early transition period, to approximately 500 in 1999-2000, jumping again to 2,655 by 2002.  The soum center of this arid and mountainous province is Ulgii, a town of approximately 30,000 people. A Look at Contemporary Mongolia. Since 1991, Kazakhstan one of three countries to repatriate kinsmen living abroad (the others are Germany and Israel). 2009 Besides the Mongols, Mongolia has one major non-Mongolian ethnic group, the Kazakhs.  2007. This article was most recently revised and updated by. She also studied Linguistics in Russia to improve her language skills in 2008 and attended an English Teacher’s Mentor Program as well as a conference titled “Improvement of Education in Remote Areas-For the Achievement of SDGs” in Tokyo, Japan (2018). With incentives provided by the Kazakhstan government to families for education, many young people move to Kazakhstan for the education benefits. Choosing to Stay: (Im)Mobility Decisions Amongst Mongolia’s Ethnic Kazakhs. The Kazakhs are the second largest ethnic group in Mongolia after the Khalkhs, with 105,000 people comprising 5% of the population.  During the first period (1991-1996), which was characterized by economic crisis in both Mongolia and Kazakhstan, the government of Kazakhstan passed a series of immigration reforms to assist ethnic Kazakhs in returning to Kazakhstan.  Nomadic pastoralism has been the primary form of human subsistence for centuries. The Kazakhs of Mongolia belong to a larger group of people who live primarily in Kazakstan. Geographers and anthropologists have long investigated the causes and consequences of migration from multiple spatial and temporal scales. and C. Werner. Barcus. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the area in the 13th century. American Anthropologist 117(2): 257-271. Dzungaria was subjected to mass Kazakh settlement after the defeat of the Dzungars. Physiographically, Mongolia and Kazakhstan are largely comprised of grassland steppe, although both countries also contain other eco-regions including deserts, mountains and forests. Government efforts were more successful in Kazakhstan, however, in Mongolia the government did not successfully collective the nomads until the 1950s. She graduated from Mongolian National University in Linguistics and completed a Masters Degree in Real Estate Land Economics. Others will move up to four times, depending on the quality of the pasture in a given year. This website provides an overview of our work during the 2004-2010 period and the people who have helped us understand the dynamic relationships between gender, economics, identity, and geo-politics that shape the complex decision-making processes and outcomes of transnational migration in this region. Mongolian is the language of inter-ethnic communication and official language of government and business. Where do the Mongolian Kazakhs live?  Human Geography of Global Issues, GEOG111, February, 2009. Invited conference. August 1-7. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Europe-Asia Studies: 69(10): 1557-1583. Globalizations 14(2):32-50. Barcus, H. Invited Lecture: “Why do all the Yurts have Satellite Dishes? (updated July 2018). Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Seattle, Washington, April 2011. Barcus, Holly. Namara Brede (BA Macalester College, 2010) spent two years working with Dr. Barcus as a research assistant for the Mongolian Kazakh Migration Project. Barcus, Holly. Admissions, International Poster Presentation. from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and Ph.D. from Kansas State University, both in Geography. Our study site in Mongolia – a brief geographic overview 2017. The diet consisted largely of milk products supplemented by mutton. Mobility and Immobility in a Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration Among the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Transnational Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. Population Most inhabitants of Mongolia live in the capital, Ulaanbaatar.  At the time of our study, it had a population of nearly 2.8 million people with a population density of less than 2 people per square km. “Collaborative Research: Networks, Gender, Culture and the Migration Decision-Making Process:  A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia”. 1863-1890. While successful middle-aged business owners and herders are relatively satisfied with life in Mongolia, their children consider attending university in Mongolia, especially Ulaanbaatar, or Kazakhstan. Thus tugan jer has been used primarily in the context of the Bayan-Ulgii is located in the Altai Mountain range and has the highest average elevation in Mongolia. Late Transition Years (2002-2009) The Kazakhs of Western Mongolia: Transnational Migration from 1990-2008. The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the area in the 13th century. Werner & Emmelhainz, National Science Foundation Grant, 2009, Research Experience for Graduate Students (REG) Supplemental Grant to take graduate student Celia Emmelhainz to Mongolia. Geoforum 56:119-128.  Essentially, three distinct periods of migration are identifiable and correspond with both macro-scale changes such as changes in economic conditions and immigration policies. The Kazakhs mainly live in the Altai Mountains. She also studied Linguistics in Russia to improve her language skills in 2008. “Field Research Among the Kazakhs of Mongolia.” Kazakhstan State University. American Anthropological Association 107th Annual Meeting. Women’s Studies Brown Bag Lecture. December. Nurshash Shugatay is a teacher in Ulaanbaatar city from Mongolia. Omissions? Today it is practised by Kazakhs and the Kyrgyz in contemporary Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as diasporas in Bayan … “Ethnographic Research Among the Kazakhs of Mongolia.” Texas A&M Anthropological Society.  The Kazakh language belongs to Turkic family of languages, and is the dominant language in Bayan-Ulgii. Cynthia Werner, Mobility, Immobility and Return Migration: The Impact  of Transnational Migration on the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. In Mongolia, the Kazakhs form one of the largest minorities, representing around four per cent of the total Mongolian population. Today, Bayan-Olgii has a distinctly Kazakh culture. During the study period, local schools taught in either Mongolian or Kazakh (this has since changed). Since the mid-1990s, she has conducted fieldwork in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Mongolia on topics that include transnational migration, international tourism development, bride abduction, the impacts of nuclear testing, gift exchange and bribery, and bazaar trade. The Kazakhs of Mongolia are culturally and ethnically different from Mongolians with language and religion as the two primary cultural markers. “Moving Towards the State: The Benefits of Economic Citizenship for Mongolia’s Kazakhs.” Society for Economic Anthropology Annual Meetings. February. Her job functions were related to the urban and rural field research, population settlement issues, migration processes and settlement and contemporary urbanization issues of Mongolia at the Institute of Geography-Geoecology. GEOFEST Minnesota. In 2010, Mongolia's ethnic minority groups faced a number of challenges, as did the majority ethnic group, Khalks.  Thus, changing economic circumstances in Kazakhstan and in Mongolia, combined with policy changes in Kazakhstan and changing perceptions of Mongolian Kazakhs about the benefits of moving to Kazakhstan begin to influence migration decisions during this period. 18 February 2010. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. They distinguish themselves from Mongolians by speaking Kazakh and practising Islam; most Mongolians are Buddhist. 2007. The Kazakhs are different people from the Mongols in many ways. In Mongolia today, when Kazakhs refer to homeland, they use tugan jer to indicate native land and atameken and atajurt12 for ancestral homeland or motherland. This has lead to some tension between Kazakhs and Mongolians, and there is a level of discrimination apparent in a minority of people. Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia. The annual quota is set for a specific number of “families,” not individuals.  Estimates suggest that between 50-60,000 Mongolian Kazakhs emigrated from Mongolia to Kazakhstan in the early 1990’s with possibly 10,000-20,000 returning by the early 2000s. “Modern Nomads: Transnational Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora of Western Mongolia. Brede, Namara*, Holly R. Barcus, Cynthia Werner. 17th Annual Colloquium of the International Geographical Union Commission on the Sustainability of Rural Systems, 2009. Maribor, Slovenia. Kazakh herding families in Mongolia today are considered semi-nomadic. ELLA KELLEHER WRITES — Many are already aware of how the Uyghur people are interned at “reeducation” camps in Xinjiang, the Western province of China. Thirdly, people are not trying to say Kazakhs have nothing to do with Mongol Empire or Genghis Khan/Chinggis Khan.  During this time, he analyzed and processed geographic data associated with the project, and also traveled to Mongolia with the research team in May-June 2009. 105th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers. Barcus, H. Invited Guest Lecture.  She received her M.A. Amangul Shugatai is a researcher at the Department of Regional Studies, Institute of International Affairs at the Mongolian Academy of Science. Who are the Mongolian Kazakhs? Her research focuses on the links between culture, gender, and the economy, with special focus on the region of Central Asia. 2012. “Kazakhstan is my homeland; Mongolia is my fatherland”: Considering the role of place identity and other cultural factors in shaping mobility and immobility decisions in a transnational community” Race, Ethnicity and Place Conference, Puerto Rico, October 2012. Barcus, H.R. Kazakhs from the Kazakh Khanates were among the peoples who moved into the depopulated Dzungaria. Werner, Cynthia. Keynote Lecture for Museum Exhibit Opening. Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. This period also witnessed a rapid and important change in the freedom of movement both within Mongolia and across borders. Mongolian Kazakhs are traditionally semi-nomadic pastoralists, herding sheep, goats, yaks, camels and horses. Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia. Collaborative Research: Networks, Gender, Culture and the Migration Decision-Making Process: A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia.  Documented Kazakh migration to Mongolia begins in 1840 with many migrants arriving from areas now Western China. April 2007. What does it mean to be semi-nomadic? The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities, Practices, and Politics. Minorities make up 18.2 per cent of the population and include Barga, Bayad, Buryat, Chantuu, Durbet, Kazakhs and Tsaatan mainly concentrated in the aimags of Bayan-Ölgii, Dornod, Hentiy, Khovd and Uvsnd. Barcus & Brede.  While the pastoral economy plays an important role in the economy of Bayan-Ulgii, trade and tourism have also emerged as the border crossings between Mongolia and China and Russia have increased and as air transport and tourism have increased in Mongolia more generally. Hides provided clothing, containers, and thongs; horsehair was braided into rope, while horn was used for ladles and other utensils.  Asian Ethnicity 11(2):209-228. Barcus, Holly. Why are the Mongolian Kazakhs migrating to Kazakhstan? Although Mongolian is the official language, the Kazakhs use their own language for everyday communication, known as Kazakh or Qazaqsa.  Transnational Identities, Migration, and the Importance of Cultural and Social Ties between Communities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. In 1920, however, Kazakhstan was incorporated as an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union and in 1924 Mongolia became the second communist country in the world. Barcus, Holly R. and Cynthia Werner. Barcus, Holly. Bryan, Texas. Felt made the tent snug inside and out and was used for cloaks. Ethnic Kazakhs can be mistaken for Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Turkic peoples of Siberia but most closest people to them is the Kyrgyz. The governments of each country sought to collective and sedentarize the nomadic populations under socialism. and Ph.D. in anthropology from Indiana University and has taught at the University of Iowa and Pitzer College. Presentations at Professional Conferences. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: singular: Қазақ, Qazaq,, plural: Қазақтар, Qazaqtar, ; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly inhabit the Ural Mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Russia, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and China), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent. Las Vegas, Nevada. 2013. “Place identity and immobility choices among ethnic minorities: Transitioning landscapes in a transnational community” 21st Colloquium of the Consortium for Sustainable Rural Systems, International Geographical Union. Many Mongolian Kazakhs also send children to work or to school in Ulaanbaatar, where there is a growing population of Kazakhs. 1600 Grand AvenueSaint Paul, MN 55105-1899 USA Have suggestions to improve this article was most recently revised and updated by shifts significantly transformed cultural and. 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