For example, tokenism was analyzed in an article that examined actions in the television show Scandal (2012–2018). 2 TV Tokenism Spiro Bolos American Studies Day “Media & Democracy” 3. Follow her on Instagram @meeandminnie where she sometimes post outfits but mostly post IG stories of her cat. For many, it’s an issue that drives certain narratives, preventing people from truthfully telling their stories. There are many more instances of tokenism than there . During the years of 1946-87 the weekly magazine, The New Yorker was analyzed to determine how often and in what situations blacks were being portrayed in the magazine's cartoon section. Most would recognize this as “that one black guy in the movie.” In every movie or television show every group of friends has that one single non-white friend; Raj Koothrappali from “ The Big Bang Theory ”, Cleveland Brown from “ Family Guy ”, Jacob Black from “ The Twilight Saga Though today there are many black main characters in many popular television shows, Stephanie L. Gomez's article speaks about Kerry Washington as Olivia Pope. 1 This is a Black Screen 2. society. At that, the representation of African American women was much slimmer. Tokenism (also known as the Smurfette Principle) is the practice of including one or a few members of a minority in a group, without their having authority or power equal to that of the other group members. Nor is tokenism confined to representation in the media. Gomez compares the character of Olivia Pope to three tropes of black women, "the slave mistress," "the help," and "the jezebel. [25] The . [6], When asked about the gains of the Civil Rights Movement in 1963, human rights activist Malcolm X answered, “What gains? In fiction, token characters represent groups which vary from the norm (usually defined as a white, heterosexual male) and are otherwise excluded from the story. The policy of making only a perfunctory effort or symbolic gesture toward the accomplishment of a goal, such as racial integration. The Classic is an open forum for the expression of student views. The significance of media representation has been a preeminent criterion in contemporary mass media. [13] Research done as early as the 1970s suggests an early recognition and disapproval of tokenism and its effects on perceptions of minority groups—specifically, perceptions of African Americans. Sports Psychology. [12], Ethnic and racial representation in television has been proven as an educational basis to inform mass audiences. She has worked in some of the most highly regulated industries, where she has managed public affairs campaigns, provided strategic advice and developed messaging on issues on ranging from anti-doping in sports, corporate transformation projects, and emerging regulations. 27 comments on “ Diversity or Tokenism? Regardless of whether a token character may be stereotypical or not, tokenism can initiate a whole biased perceived sense of thought that may conflict with how people see a specific race, culture, gender, or ethnicity. Tokenism is defined as: "The practice of hiring or appointing a token number of people from underrepresented groups such as women, Black people, Deaf, people, etc. Tokenism? are genuine forms of children’s participation in projects. [9] Linkov also attributes drawbacks in psychology to Cultural and Numerical Tokenism, instances that have shifted where value of expertise is placed and its effect on proliferating information that is not representative of all the possible facts. The case for gender parity has been made for years. Writers also use the token character to pay lip service to the rules and the standards that they do not abide, such as by obeying anti-racism policies, by including a token ethnic-minority character who has no true, narrative function in the plot and is usually a stereotype character. Lando was one of the first developed Black characters in a science-fiction film at the time. She has experience in corporate communications, media relations, internal communications and government relations. [5] In the book Why We Can't Wait (1964), civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. discussed the subject of tokenism, and how it constitutes a minimal acceptance of black people to the mainstream of U.S. "Tokenism In Psychology: Standing On The Shoulders Of Small Boys. In a 2017 article, Affinity Magazine noted that the character of Lincoln subscribed to the trope of the "scary black man" before he is more humanized by his white love interest and then ultimately killed off. The article does give a few examples of tokenism in the media, but their mostly examples of tokenism in the field of television. Movies and television shows often include a couple of minority characters in order to claim diversity, yet do not try to be inclusive. tokenism synonyms, tokenism pronunciation, tokenism translation, English dictionary definition of tokenism. That is, they are not allowed to explore their passions, as white writers are often allowed to do. It could use more movie references like for cases like Ernie Hudson in Ghostbusters and Reginald Vel Johnson in Die Hard. Tokenism adds a veneer of diversity but is no more than "a kind of 'Uncle Tomism,'" Gateward said: "It provides a kind of hip 'coolness' to the white character and shows that he/she is not racist. Tokenism is a concept that usually applies to the media, in which companies represent a few minority groups to claim diversity. Posted by Mallika Aggarwal. [22], By definition, token employees in a workplace are known to be few; hence, their alleged high visibility among the staff subjects them to greater pressure to perform their work at higher production standards of quality and volume and to behave in the expected, stereotypical manner. Over the 42 years of research, there was only one U.S. black main character in a cartoon where race was not the main theme, race was actually completely irrelevant. Governments and political parties have failed to … Tokenism is the practice of cherry-picking a handful of societally underrepresented individuals, as a perfunctory effort to appear diverse and representative of the larger society. Tokenism appears in advertising as well as other subdivisions of major media. The use of these token characters often portrayed African American people to stand in sidekick positions to their white counterparts. The way in which minority characters are written in shows and films often perpetuate stereotypes, spreading misrepresentative content to large, often multinational, audiences. The practice of hiring or appointing a token number of people from underrepresented groups in order to deflect criticism or comply with affirmative action rules: "Tokenism does not change stereotypes of social systems but works to preserve them, since it dulls the revolutionary impulse" (Mary Daly). The group (i) highly valued genuine intent and relationship building as elements to combat tokenism; (ii) noted that early genuine attempts at engagement may superficially resemble tokenism as researchers build enduring and trusting relationships with patient/community partners and (iii) emphasized the importance of seeking and utilizing patient experiences throughout research. However, Tokenism is Still a Problem. Wells Jaha is killed off in season one.

[22], Research comparing the effects of gender and race tokenism on individuals indicates that the practice of tokenism can accurately predict conditions in the workplace for members of racial minorities. The token character can be based on ethnicity (i.e. Over 100,000 Italian translations of English words and phrases. Statistics on token ethnic characters still suggest toxic masculinity in African American males; threateningly powerful stereotypes of African American women; hyper-sexuality of African American and Asian women; and effeminate characteristics in Asian men and men of other racial minorities. Today tokenism floods the media and popular culture. See authoritative translations of Tokenism in Spanish with example sentences and audio pronunciations. ‘With Scotland viewed by most as a distinctive media market, in terms of TV, publishing, radio, and advertising, such regulation could play a vital role in battling broadcasting tokenism.’ ‘The industry scheme is all well and good but until every shop has a bin for collecting scrap mobile phone equipment, the scheme is nothing more than tokenism.’ A racial divide in TV has been present since the first television show that hired minorities, Amos 'n' Andy (1928–1960) in 1943. As spring starts, some excited that ‘Winter is Coming’, Harrisites’ plans to celebrate this Covid-19 holiday season, Harrisites curate pictures of food on Instagram, Follow @introducingthhs2020 on Facebook and Instagram. "[16], The CW show The 100 has received criticism over claims of tokenism with how minorities are used in the show. In the late 1960s and early 1970s cartoons were mostly racial themed, and depicted blacks in "token" roles where they are only there to create a sense of inclusiveness. At the same time, media organisations need to realise that there is a very fine line between having a diverse range of voices and tokenising them. In the face of racial segregation, tokenism emerged as a solution that though earnest in effort, only acknowledged an issue without actually solving it. Tokenism (also known as the Smurfette Principle) is the practice of including one or a few members of a minority in a group, without their having authority or power equal to that of the other group members.It functions to place a burden on an individual to represent all others like her. [17], In 2012, Acura put out a casting call for their commercial where they stated that the main actor must be a “nice looking, friendly, not too dark” African American. The significance of media representation has been a preeminent criterion in contemporary mass media. “There’s a whole entire person and a set of experiences that can be leveraged to the benefit of the organization.”. In fiction, a token character exists only to achieve minimal compliance with the normality presumed for the society described in the story. The social concept and the employment practice of tokenism became understood in the popular culture of the United States in the late 1950s. What is Tokenism? [25] The "token" candidates are frequently submitted as paper candidates, while nominations in competitive or safe seats continue to favor members of the majority group. in order to deflect accusations of discrimination. [22], Research comparing the effects of gender and race tokenism on individuals indicates that the practice of tokenism can accurately predict conditions in the workplace for members of racial minorities. “It’s exploitation, to an extent,” she said. Disney has also come under fire from both LGBTQ+ members and fans after they started introducing minor gay moments in their movies like Avengers Endgame, Onward, The Rise of Skywalker. [25] The "token" candidates are frequently submitted as paper candidates, while nominations in competitive or safe seats continue to favor members of the majority group. Katie added that it can influence minorities’ “perspectives of society,” changing the way that people see themselves. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, "tokenism: definition of tokenism in Oxford dictionary", "A Summing Up: Louis Lomax interviews Malcolm X", "Hollywood Diversity Report: Mounting evidence that more diverse casts help the bottom line", "America Ferrera Breaks Down The Difference Between Tokenism And 'True Diversity, "When Representation Becomes Tokenism: Why We Need Diverse Creators", "Acura Casting Call: 'Not Too Dark' Blacks", "Acura NSX Super Bowl Commercial -- Only Light-Skinned Blacks Need Apply", "Ethnic minorities accuse TV programmers of tokenism", "Minorities accuse TV and radio of tokenism", "Response The new Wuthering Heights does not ignore racism; it tackles it full on | Comment is free", "Wuthering Heights – review | Film | The Observer", "Gender, Race and Representation in the Star Wars franchise: an Introduction", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tokenism&oldid=995994872, Articles with failed verification from July 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 23:48. That is, they are not allowed to explore their passions, as white writers are often allowed to do. On the other hand, the change of television diversity is a slow process, and tokenism is still being used a lot to this day. It potentially takes employment, educational and financial opportunities away from minorities. Although there are a large number of shows that could fall under the definition of tokenism, many … have accused Disney of queerbaiting. Your ownership is recorded utilizing a blockchain technology backed security token, which has multiple underlying smart contracts & security features. [18][19], Just like television, tokenism in the media has changed over time to coincide with real life events. Racism requires those in power to maintain their privilege by exercising social, economic and/or political muscle against people of color (POC). By Staff Writers J oanne Park & Sakshi Umrotkar. homosexual), or gender (typically a female character in a predominantly male cast). TV Tokenism 1. The only LGBT representation the show included is when character Clarke and Lexa become an item, but Lexa is soon killed off for shock value. Translate Tokenism. . Although there are a large number of shows that could fall under the definition of tokenism, many … The Quebec election in Arabic media. [14] Research completed on token ethnic characters into the new millennium has found that the representation of males has grown in numbers, but has not improved in negative portrayal. Tokenism definition is - the policy or practice of making only a symbolic effort (as to desegregate). [17], In 2012, Acura put out a casting call for their commercial where they stated that the main actor must be a “nice looking, friendly, not too dark” African American. Sylver theme, designed by litMotion Templates, Townsend Harris High School at Queens College, Lately, Hollywood has been covering more stories from increasingly diverse perspectives and giving more recognition to international movies that do so. Jewish, Muslim), sexual orientation (i.e. Tokenism is the practice of making only a perfunctory or symbolic effort to be inclusive to members of minority groups, especially by recruiting people from underrepresented groups in order to give the appearance of racial or sexual equality within a workforce. Companies can help forestall tokenism by making sure there’s more than one person from each demographic in a group. [15], Tokenism in television has been spoken about under a different umbrella in recent decades. [25] The . [4], The social concept and the employment practice of tokenism became understood in the popular culture of the United States in the late 1950s. However, tokenism leads to a narrow representation of minority groups, and this trend often leads to minority characters being exposed in negative or stereotypical fashions. At the same time, media organisations need to realise that there is a very fine line between having a diverse range of voices and tokenising them. image copyright Alamy Of 214 covers published by the 19 best-selling monthly magazines in 2017, only 20 featured a person of colour, according to analysis by the Guardian. Today tokenism floods the media and popular culture. Raven Reyes is hypersexualized or tortured during her screen time. The following quotes are also true for … Studies have shown that, among other racial minorities, Asian Americans are targeted by advertising companies to fulfill casting diversity, but are the most likely ethnic minority to be placed in the backgrounds of advertisements. The panel kicked off by defining tokenism: “the practice of doing something (such as hiring a person who belongs to a minority group) only to prevent criticism and give the appearance that people are being treated fairly” (via Merriam Webster). 6 mins read. Adilifu Nama has stated that this character is "a form of tokenism that placed one of the most optimistic faces on racial inclusion in a genre that had historically excluded Black representation. Tokenism? 4. Learn more. Absolutely an amazing next level article. She continued to say that we can promote diverse voices, as the Tribeca Film Festival did, hire more people with diverse backgrounds based on their abilities, and encourage them to tell their stories. What Can Businesses Do About Tokenism? [17], In 2012, Acura put out a casting call for their commercial where they stated that the main actor must be a “nice looking, friendly, not too dark” African American. [30][31] The South Park character Token Black is a reference to this. The first controversy arose after Disney said that Lefou in the live action Beauty and the Beast would be gay only for it to be a minor dance scene at the end of the film. black, Hispanic, Asian), religion (i.e. There are three components to preventing tokenism: diversity, equity, and inclusion. Shanna is a Richmond, VA based blogger, TV style expert and freelance PR coordinator for Sarah Olivia Marketing. As protests continue around the world against anti-Black racism, companies are looking for more effective ways to create true diversity in the workplace. the practice or policy of making no more than a token effort or gesture, as in offering opportunities to minorities equal to those of the majority. Movies such as. Lately, Hollywood has been covering more stories from increasingly diverse perspectives and giving more recognition to international movies that do so. Define tokenism. We can see that every film has different kinds of people in a community or organization to… of the administration or faculty, or of the student body as a whole. Katie added that misrepresentation in the media has led to the perception that Asian characters are “studious or nerdy…[which] reinforces stereotypes and microaggressions.”  People who have certain experiences, Ms. Duffy said, should be able to share their own perspective. Most would recognize this as “that one black guy in the movie.” In every movie or television show every group of friends has that one single non-white friend; Raj Koothrappali from “ The Big Bang Theory ”, Cleveland Brown from “ Family Guy ”, Jacob Black from “ The Twilight Saga .” Tokenism in Fitness Spaces—What Is It and Why It’s Harmful. The Oscars ceremonies have received criticism over a lack of representation of people of color, as critics have pointed towards a lack of minorities nominated for awards, particularly in 2015 and 2016, when not a single actor of color was nominated. In the book Why We Can't Wait (1964), civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. discussed the subject of tokenism, and how it constitutes a minimal acceptance of black people to the mainstream of U.S. society. Tokenism is a problem that continues to pervade American culture. any legislation, admissions policy, hiring practice, etc., that demonstrates only minimal compliance with rules, laws, or public pressure: Admitting one woman to the men's club was merely tokenism. Tokenism appears in advertising as well as other subdivisions of major media. As senior Shivani Persaud said, “Institutions can argue that they already help a number of people [and]… have already fulfilled some sort of quota.”. See more. Tokenism is interpreted as reinforcing subtle representations of minorities in commercials. Italian Translation of “tokenism” | The official Collins English-Italian Dictionary online. [21][non-primary source needed], A Harvard Business School professor, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, asserted back in 1993 that a token employee is usually part of a "socially-skewed group" of employees who belong to a minority group that constitutes less than 15% of the total employee population of the workplace. [23], According to one study, racial minorities also experience heightened performance pressures related to their race and gender; however, many reported that racial problems were more common than gender problems. The term “Tokenism” is maybe something the average person has never heard of. T The "token" candidates are frequently submitted as paper candidates, while nominations in competitive or safe seats continue to favor members of the majority group., Just like television, Tokenism in the media has … media programmes about the right to a happy and secure childhood . Support Kweller Prep, sponsor of The Classic: For decades, minority groups have been fighting for fair and equal representation. Companies can help forestall tokenism by making sure there’s more than one person from each demographic in a group. [36] Where in the past two trilogies the main three characters were two White men and a White woman, in the new trilogy the main trio consists of a Black man (John Boyega), a Hispanic man (Oscar Isaac), and a White woman (Daisy Ridley). Follow her on Instagram @meeandminnie where she sometimes post outfits but mostly post IG stories of her cat. [27][28], In much contemporary cinema and television, the inclusion of token characters is usually and implausibly seen in historical settings where such a person's race would be immediately noticed. Journalists and writers of color are often wary of being told to cover only issues related to their ethnicity, rather than writing on the various topics that they are interested in. Today tokenism floods the media and popular culture. Today tokenism floods the media and popular culture. Many[who?] 1 This is a Black Screen 2. in order to give an appearance of fairness or diversity." 6 mins read. The term has been around since the Civil Rights Movement, where along with fighting for equal rights, African Americans fought for accurate and just representation. TV Tokenism 1. Tokenism is Tokenism refers to a policy or practice of limited inclusion of members of a minority group, usually creating a false appearance of inclusive practices, intentional or not. Tokenism is, simply, covert racism. However, tokenism has worsened the issue by enforcing stereotypes on a platform in the media. Reading Time: 4 minutes 17 seconds. On the other hand, the change of television diversity is a slow process, and tokenism is still being used a lot to this day. Tokenism and token Deaf people. [26], The end result of such an approach is that the party's slate of candidates maintains the appearance of diversity, but members of the majority group remain overrepresented in the party's caucus after the election — and thus little to no substantive progress toward greater inclusion of underrepresented groups has actually occurred.[26]. Token characters are usually background characters, and, as such, are usually disposable, and are eliminated from the narrative early in the story, in order to enhance the drama, while conserving the main characters. All cartoons from the earliest times depicted U.S. blacks in stereotypical roles. [10], Tokenism, in a television setting, can be any act of putting a minority into the mix to create some sort of publicly viewed diversity.

[22], Research comparing the effects of gender and race tokenism on individuals indicates that the practice of tokenism can accurately predict conditions in the workplace for members of racial minorities. Going against tokenism implies facing an issue that’s persisted for several decades. [18][19], Just like television, Tokenism in the media has changed over time to coincide with real life events. What an eye opener with receipts, receipts, receipts. 3 The Past Spike Lee’s Bamboozled Multiple examples of the negative portrayal of African- Americans in last 50 years Similarities to today’s sitcoms? How to use tokenism in a sentence. Tokenism definition, the practice or policy of making no more than a token effort or gesture, as in offering opportunities to minorities equal to those of the majority. -- merged definitions. [20], Tokenism appears in advertising as well as other subdivisions of major media. Tokenism is interpreted as reinforcing subtle representations of minorities in commercials. Diversity means having students or staff from a variety of backgrounds, including ethnicity, race, gender, socioeconomic class, sexual orientation, and nationality. Today tokenism floods the media and popular culture. Tokenism: The Wrong Path to Diversity. tokenism In its first 2010 run, the show was an early instance of the medium's representation in a way that didn't amount to tokenism. Tokenism is interpreted as reinforcing subtle representations of minorities in commercials. In their cases, their candidacy is not mere tokenism because they are running in ridings where they have good a chance of getting elected. PLAN Black Hollywood – Mainstream Stereotypes Tokenism In the media we see many representations of different people in Hollywood. The social concept and the employment practice of tokenism became understood in the popular culture of the United States in the late 1950s. Movies and television shows often include a couple of minority characters in order to claim diversity, yet do not try to be inclusive. Notable exceptions to this practice include stories based in history and stories that address racism directly. n. 1. I will be Looking into Black Hollywood and how African Americans are stereotyped and the use of tokenism by the cinema and whether to some extent it is true. English teacher and film expert Christine Duffy said that people are often too passive about representation and that tokenism is “an easy way out of actually changing a system that isn’t as diverse as it needs to be.”. In a positive light, these distinct people can be seen as experts in their racial/cultural category, valued skills, or a different perspective on a project. But in reality watch a movie or a TV programme and it’s guaranteed that the minor, usually stereotypical roles will be given to BME actors (who are also often the first to die ). Tokenism is defined as “ the policy and practice of making a perfunctory gesture towards the inclusion of members of minority groups” If you look at any television show you watch or even movie for the most part you will always find at least one use of tokenism. [22] Given the smallness of the group of token employees in a workplace, the individual identity of each token person is usually disrespected by the dominant group, who apply a stereotype role to them as a means of social control in the workplace. All you have gotten is tokenism — one or two Negroes in a job, or at a lunch counter, so the rest of you will be quiet.”[7][8], In the field of psychology, the broader definition of tokenism is a situation in which a member of a distinctive category is treated differently from other people. Movies such as Black Panther, Roma, Call Me By Your Name, and Crazy Rich Asians are recent Academy Award nominees and winners, but there are still steps to be taken for representation to be reflective of modern society and taken more seriously. "[34], When the first film of the newest installment of the franchise, The Force Awakens, was released in 2015, the conversation shifted. Around this time, minorities accounted for 12.9% of lead roles in 163 films surveyed in 2014, according to the 2016 Hollywood Diversity Report. How to use tokenism in a sentence. [33][34][35] The character of Lando Calrissian (portrayed by Billy Dee Williams) and Mace Windu (portrayed by Samuel L. Jackson) have been cited as two human characters of racial minority that appear on screen. Typical examples in real life and fiction include purposely including a member of a minority race (such as a … We can see that every film has different kinds of people in a community or organization to… The world is watching the BM, BRF and the racist island of Karens/Kens make true clowns of themselves. In India, representation of women has always been controversial and contradictory. Absolutely an amazing next level article. [22], In politics, allegations of tokenism may occur when a political party puts forward candidates from under-represented groups, such as women or racial minorities, in races that the party has little or no chance of winning, while making limited or no effort to ensure that such candidates have similar opportunity to win the nomination in races where the party is safe or favoured. 2 TV Tokenism Spiro Bolos American Studies Day “Media & Democracy” 3. Tokenism definition is - the policy or practice of making only a symbolic effort (as to desegregate). Posted by Mallika Aggarwal. Tokenism is the practice of cherry-picking a handful of societally underrepresented individuals, as a perfunctory effort to appear diverse and representative of the larger society. Ethnic Media Voices in the time of COVID-19. 4. Institutions can “[spotlight] the people of minority background” in an attempt to showcase diversity especially for the audience. Shivani explained that tokenism can also lead to a performer standing out specifically for their background. Tokenism is a platform for investors to browse fractionalized investment opportunities, review all the due diligence documents and make an educated decision on which property to invest in. Journalists and writers of color are often wary of being told to cover only issues related to their ethnicity, rather than writing on the various topics that they are interested in. At the same time, media organisations need to realise that there is a very fine line between having a diverse range of voices and tokenising them. [11] From the Huffington Post, America Ferrera states, “Tokenism is about inserting diverse characters because you feel you have to; true diversity means writing characters that aren’t just defined by the color of their skin, and casting the right actor for the role." Thus, representation “does not [always] mean that the artist or company actually support equality,” sophomore Katie Sie said. Television in a predominantly male cast ) heard of pretending to give advantage to those groups in society are…! Long-Term, large-scale change, '' Mookerjee said an attempt to showcase diversity especially for the wrong reasons tokenism... Tv tokenism Spiro Bolos American Studies Day “ media & Democracy ” 3 of or! Brf and the employment practice of making only a symbolic effort ( as to desegregate ), Ms. Duffy,! 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That it can influence minorities ’ “ perspectives of society, ” sophomore Katie Sie said tokenism: diversity equity. Character token Black is a concept that usually applies to the media, in which companies represent a minority. Whole entire person and a set of experiences that can be leveraged to the media, in companies. Or symbolic gesture toward the accomplishment of a goal, such as racial integration movie references like for like. In Hollywood TV style expert and freelance PR coordinator for Sarah Olivia Marketing of a goal, such racial. Secure childhood of children ’ s more than one person from each demographic in a predominantly male )... Having a Moment ” Loretta L Krause November 3, 2020 at 8:30 pm and/or muscle... See many representations of minorities, Linkov, Václav she sometimes post but. Worsened the issue by enforcing stereotypes on a platform in the popular culture of the United in! 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Has never heard of “ tokenism ” is maybe something the average person has never heard of 20,. She has experience in corporate communications, media relations, internal communications and government relations term. Their background media relations, internal communications and government relations to treat the character. Several decades and equal representation Scandal ( 2012–2018 ) children ’ s exploitation, to an extent, ” said. 1. actions that are the result of pretending to give an appearance of fairness or.. Achieve minimal compliance with the normality presumed for the audience as though they not... Been a preeminent criterion in contemporary mass media - the policy of making only a perfunctory effort symbolic... From truthfully telling their stories muscle against people of color ( POC ) advantage to those groups in who! 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