[14] This model has led to increasing interest in geothermal systems in the Basin and Range, and requires consideration of the continued influence of the fully subducted Farallon plate in the extension responsible for the Basin and Range Province. Clarence Dutton famously compared the many narrow parallel mountain ranges that distinguish the unique topography of the Basin and Range to an "army of caterpillars marching toward Mexico. The Basin and Range Province is a vast physiographic region covering much of the inland Western United States and northwestern Mexico. Opposing normal faults link at depth producing a horst and graben geometry, where horst refers to the upthrown fault block and graben to the down dropped fault block. Basin and Range Province synonyms, Basin and Range Province pronunciation, Basin and Range Province translation, English dictionary definition of Basin and Range Province. Lorenz V., Nicholls I.A. [11] However, plate movement alone does not account for the high elevation of the Basin and Range region. (1976) The Permocarboniferous Basin and Range Province of Europe. The Basin and Range Section is a physiographically diverse area characterized by expansive playas and open grassland basins cut by steep, rugged mountain, mesa, and canyon terrain. The Basin and Range Province is a classic locality of continental extension, and it is ideal for analyzing factors that control the collapse of thickened orogenic crust. East of the Sonoran Desert and extending southward from the Colorado Plateau is the Mexican Highland section, which has many of the characteristics of the Great Basin and which covers parts of New Mexico, Arizona, and northern Mexico. The MBE is estimated for the Basin and Range province considering 22 earthquakes from the province and a simple physical model of a circular rupture in the seismogenic zone. Steens Mountain consists mostly of Miocene basalt. In the United States, it is bordered on the west by the eastern fault scarp of the Sierra Nevada and spans over 500 miles (800 km) to its eastern border marked by the Wasatch Fault , the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande Rift . Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. Created by tension as the land is being pulled apart during uplift; Parallel normal faults are a signature for basin-range extension; The plate stretches, fractures, and thins; Mountains rise, valleys drop during faulting Since then, similar deformational patterns have been identified in MCCs in the Basin and Range and has led geologists to examine them as a group of related geologic features formed by Cenozoic crustal extension. Data and Processing Methods The ASTER dataset used to cover the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province in the United States consists of 247 ASTER_Level 1B scenes (plate 1 The ASTER_Level 1B radiance data consist of all VNIR, SWIR and TIR bands, including the backward-looking VNIR … Basin and Range topography is characterized by alternating valleys and mountainous areas, oriented in a north-south, linear direction. Evidence exists to suggest that extension initially began in the southern Basin and Range and propagated north over time. [6] Opinions vary regarding the total extension of the region; however, the median estimate is about 100% total lateral extension. The central Basin and Range province is "young" in the sense that it is still an actively evolving part of the western landscape (if you doubt this, see Figure 3). Geology of New Mexico: Rio Grande rift, Ogallala Aquifer, Basin and Range Province, Morrison Formation, Kirtland Formation, Delaware Basin: Amazon.es: Source: Wikipedia: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Most of the pertinent tectonic plate movement associated with the province occurred in Neogene time and continues to the present. [15], Prior to the Eocene Epoch (55.8 ±0.2 to 33.9 ±0.1 Ma) the convergence rate of the Farallon and North American Plates was fast, the angle of subduction was shallow, and the slab width was huge. Modern extension in the Basin and Range province occurs as brittle deformation in the upper 15 km of the crust and is probably matched by ductile deformation and/or magmatic intrusion at lower levels. The Basin and Range Province is a vast physiographic region covering much of the inland Western United States and northwestern Mexico. Select from premium Basin And Range Province of the highest quality. The region comprises almost all of Nevada, the western half of Utah, southeastern California, and the southern part of Arizona and extends into northwestern Mexico. (1977), Stewart and Carlson (1978), and Walker and MacLeod (1991). [16][17][18][19], In addition to small amounts of Nevada petroleum, the Basin and Range Province supplies nearly all the copper and most of the gold, silver, and barite mined in the United States. lution and geology of the Basin and Range Province. [11] The western United States is a region of high heat flow which lowers the density of the lithosphere and stimulates isostatic uplift as a consequence. The entire region has been pulled apart, fracturing the tectonic plates and creating large faults. Province and differs in several important aspects from the main part of the Basin and Range in central Nevada. [12] Lithospheric regions characterized by elevated heat flow are weak and extensional deformation can occur over a broad region. The highest point fully within the province is White Mountain Peak in California, while the lowest point is the Badwater Basin in Death Valley at −282 feet (−86 m). The physiography of the province is the result of tectonic extension that began around 17 million years ago in the early Miocene epoch. The distribution of deformation within the Basin and Range province was determined from 1992, 1996, and 1998 surveys of a dense, 800-kilometer–aperture, Global Positioning System network. In central Nevada (at roughly lat 38 – 40°, fig. The most accepted hypothesis suggests that crustal shearing associated with the San Andreas Fault caused spontaneous extensional faulting similar to that seen in the Great Basin. Faults from state geologic maps of Jennings et al. The broad expanses of dry alluvial deposits and ephemeral streams that characterize the basin areas belie their importance as water sources and their geologic complexity. The area is mostly arid and sparsely populated, although there are several major metropolitan areas, such as El Paso, Las Vegas, Phoenix, and Tucson. Basin & Range province. [10] Today, the Pacific Plate moves north-westward relative to North America, a configuration which has given rise to increased shearing along the continental margin.[9]. The province has a varied and remarkable topography consisting largely of numerous small, roughly parallel mountain ranges (trending north-south) separated by nearly flat desert plains, or basins. Geologic Map of the Eastern Eagletail Mountains, Maricopa, La Paz, and Yuma Counties, Arizona. Major ranges include the Snake Range, the Panamint Range, the White Mountains, and the Sandia Mountains. The physiography of the province is the result of tectonic extension that began around 17 … Updates? Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series (Series C - Mathematical and Physical Sciences), vol 22. In the southern part of the Basin and Range the intermontane basins are connected by through drainage that contributes to the flow of the lower Colorado River. As the range is reduced in mass through time, the average values of these variables should diminish. In: Falke H. (eds) The Continental Permain in Central, West, and South Europe. Learn basin and range with free interactive flashcards. Drainage systems should accord with rthe steady sta:te that is pvedicled by province. Fluids along fault zones then transfer heat vertically through the crust. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Sonoran Desert (q.v.) [9] In the Middle Miocene, the Pacific-Farallon Ridge was subducted beneath North America ending subduction along this part of the Pacific margin; however, the Farallon Plate continued to subduct into the mantle. We further apply the back-projection inversion technique to ob-tain a tomographic map of Q o variations in the Basin and Range Province and its surroundings. 30–15 Ma Basin and Range extension (Dilles and Gans, 1995). Shaded-relief map of northwestern Basin and Range province, showing features described in text. [5] The crust in conjunction with the upper mantle comprises the lithosphere. If you would like to participate, you can choose to edit this article, or visit the project page for more information. [3] In Mexico, the Basin and Range Province is dominated by and largely synonymous with the Mexican Plateau. Most North American deserts are located within it. Evidence suggests that the less-recognized southern portion of the province is bounded on the east by the Laramide Thrust Front of the Sierra Madre Oriental and on the west by the Gulf of California and Baja Peninsula with notably less faulting apparent in the Sierra Madre Occidental in the center of the southernmost Basin and Range Province.[4]. It is suggested that this plate continued to be underthrust until about 19 Ma, at which time it was completely consumed and volcanic activity ceased, in part. The Basin and Range extends from southern Oregon and Idaho into northern Mexico. The base of the lithosphere beneath the Basin and Range is estimated to be about 60 – 70 km. The entire region, including all of Nevada, southeastern California, and southeastern Oregon, consists of high mountain ranges (mostly … remains scarce and scattered. In the Basin and Range province, the number of historical earthquakes in the magnitude range 6 to 6.6 without significant surface rupture is clearly greater than the two events below magnitude 6.6 with primary surface rupture. The Basin and Range Province has been divided into five physiographic sections, the largest and most infamous being the Great Basin (Eaton, 1982). Choose from 38 different sets of basin and range flashcards on Quizlet. The BRPC states share common concerns regarding earthquake hazards and risk in the Basin and Range Province (BRP). This chapter deals with the Basin and Range province defies generalities. Some areas, such as the Basin and Range Province of the western United States (Utah, Nevada, and California), contain an extensive network of relatively small tectonic depressions closely akin to rift valleys. In some localities in the Basin and Range, metamorphic basement is visible at the surface. However, the magnitude and distribution of extension, which are critical parameters for this analysis, remain poorly constrained in many areas. Tension created by movements of Earth's tectonic plates have stretched the earth's surface to the breaking point. Basin and Range province. McDermitt Caldera from Rytuba Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. By Early Miocene time, much of the Farallon Plate had been consumed, and the seafloor spreading ridge that separated the Farallon Plate from the Pacific Plate (Pacific-Farallon Ridge) approached North America. This landmass is characterized by an isolated interior drainage system, meaning that its surface water does not drain to the sea, but rather into interior lower-than-sea-level basins. The Arizona Basin and Range Province consists of broad alluvial valleys that separate low but rugged mountain ranges. The topography consists of basins 10 to 30 kilometres wide and 50 to 200 kilometres long, separated by ranges of similar dimensions. (ID: 30-3381) The Basin and Range Province includes much of western North America. The northern Basin and Range province is one of the largest continental extensional regions on earth. * * *. The Basin and Range is a semidesert area with an extremely complex geologic history. Corrections? The northern half of the province is called the Great Basin (q.v.). In contrast, the Laramide ranges of Montana and Wyoming have been tectonically inactive for 30 million years or longer, as have the Colorado Rockies. [7] Total lateral displacement in the Basin and Range varies from 60 – 300 km since the onset of extension in the Early Miocene with the southern portion of the province representing a greater degree of displacement than the north. The study of metamorphic core complexes has provided valuable insight into the extensional processes driving Basin and Range formation. At 40 degrees N latitude, the province is 800 km wide and consists of 15 and 20 N-S striking normal faults. Figure 2. Common geographic features include numerous endorheic basins, ephemeral lakes, plateaus, and valleys alternating with mountains (as described below). To the east of this, the narrow, varied Sacramento section, in New Mexico and western Texas, is a plateau with blocks of eastward-dipping mountains. The average crustal thickness of the Basin and Range Province is approximately 30 – 35 km and is comparable to extended continental crust around the world. Extension has widened the zone of high elevation, causing minor subsidence in the northern Basin and Range, and major subsidence including the opening of a new ocean basin in the southern range. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …eastern escarpment lies the arid Basin and Range subregion, among the most remarkable topographic provinces of the United States. A metamorphic core complex occurs when lower crust is brought to the surface as a result of extension. Its 100 or so mountain ranges are the remains of crustal rocks that were upraised or uplifted by faulting along north-south lines, after which the resulting blocks were tumbled, eroded, and partly buried by alluvial debris that had accumulated in the desert basins at their feet. Extensional environments like the Basin and Range are characterized by listric normal faulting, or faults that level out with depth. "[2] The Basin and Range Province should not be confused with The Great Basin, which is a sub-section of the greater Basin and Range physiographic region defined by its unique hydrological characteristics (internal drainage). Basin and Range Province. Humans have been utilizing the area for 8,000 to 10,000 years, although evidence of occupation prior to 7,000 B.C. In the United States, it is bordered on the west by the eastern fault scarp of the Sierra Nevada and spans over 500 miles (800 km) to its eastern border marked by the Wasatch Fault, the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande Rift. See Article History. MCCs in the Basin and Range were not interpreted as being related to crustal extension until after the 1960s. [9] The movement at this boundary divided the Pacific-Farallon Ridge and spawned the San Andreas transform fault, generating an oblique strike-slip component. Rocks of great complexity have been broken by faulting, and the resulting blocks have tumbled, eroded, and been…. It is defined by unique basin and range topography, characterized by abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins. Key events preceding Basin and Range extension in the western United States include a long period of compression due to the subduction of the Farallon Plate under the west coast of the North American continental plate which stimulated the thickening of the crust. Background and Activities. Find the perfect Basin And Range Province stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Basin and Range extension is therefore thought to be unrelated to the kind of extension produced by mantle upwelling which may cause narrow rift zones, such as the Afar Triple Junction. province [Zoback et al., 1981]. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. [citation needed], Geologic province extending through much of the western United States and Mexico, List of large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province, Geologic timeline of Western North America, Intermontane Plateaus § Basin and Range Province, List of United States physiographic regions, "USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 meter Downloadable Data Collection from The National Map 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) – National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)", 10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0701:TRSBAR>2.3.CO;2, "Geologic Provinces of the United States: Basin and Range Province", "Basin and Range Province – Tertiary Extension", 10.1130/0016-7606(1971)82[3497:ticotg]2.0.co;2, "Northwest Origins, An Introduction to the Geologic History of Washington State, Catherine L. Townsend and John T. Figge", "Digital Geology of Idaho, Laura DeGrey and Paul Link", "New geologic evidence for additional 16.5–15.5 Ma silicic calderas in northwest Nevada related to initial impingement of the Yellowstone hot spot", "Geotectonic Evolution of the Great Basin", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basin_and_Range_Province&oldid=1004859260, Physiographic regions of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 February 2021, at 19:22. The region comprises almost all of Nevada, the western half of Utah, southeastern California, and the southern part of Arizona and extends into northwestern Mexico. The Basin and Range Province includes much of western North America. 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