While other pozzolans and SCMs are available and provide many of the same benefits, Class F fly ash has become the industry standard for producing quality, durable concrete because of its low cost and wide-spread availability. A class of highly reactive pozzolans offers more durability for aggressive environments. The current methodologies used for the selection and classification of pozzolans present certain chemical and physical requirements that may restrict their use. Used at a 15 to 20% replacement rate for Portland cement, the finely ground pumice pozzolan works to drastically reduce, even eliminate, by-product CH by coverting it to CSH. From the Portland Cement Association. They are. Met. Class G. No additions other than calcium sulfate or water, or both, shall be interground or blended with the clinker during manufacture of Class G well cement. Class C→ from lignitide or subbituminous coals (SiO 2 +Al 2 O 3 +Fe 2 O 3 >50%) Class F→ from bituminous coals and SiO 2 +Al 2 O 3 +Fe 2 O 3 >70% Silica fume → SiO 2 ≈ 85-98% Blast Furnace Slag→ SiO 2 ~ 30-40% Al 2 O 3 ~ 7-19% CaO ~ 30-50% . Three types of natural pozzolans (volcanic ash) including Qizkorpi, Mamaloo, and Chichest near the city of Urmia, Iran, were used in this investigation. 2.3 Other hazards P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with relevant regulations. A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the . observed, all pozzolans passed the requirements of class N of this standard. This grade of Fly ash is derived from bituminous coal having fractions SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3 greater than 70 %. requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy From University of Wollongong By Warren South, B. Pozzolans are materials known to be rich in amorphous silica and alumina, being of natural or artificial origin, used in the optimization of mortar and concrete durability. Pozzolans are a broad class of siliceous or siliceous and aluminous materials which, in themselves, possess little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. The ASTM tests C311 and C593 measure requirements for pozzolans but they are time consuming and certainly not suited for quality control. pozzolans are often industrial or agricultural by-products, therefore their use with lime in construction is a better alternative than landfill disposal. However, pozzolanic materials can be divided into two major groups as natural pozzolans and artificial pozzolans. Pozzolan A presented the highest amount of SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3. Pozzolans are natural or synthetic materials that contain silica in reactive forms. The latter three values are the same for Class F and Class C fly ashes, making SUM the primary distinction between the two classes. This grade of Fly ash derived from lignite coal having fractions SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3 greater than 50 %. It reacts with calcium hydroxide generated by hydrating cement to form additional cementations materials when it is finely divided. Pozzolans replace cement pound for pound. Early strength suffers with higher replacement doses : Slag: 25% to 50%: Increased workability. Mazama volcanic ash as a natural pozzolan and explored innovative uses of the material for roadway improvement. 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